Construction of the questionnaire involved adapting questions from a review of existing literature that had looked at the reasons behind children’s purchases from fast food takeaway outlets.3 , 4 , 15 , 16 Participants were asked to self-report their gender, age, date of birth and ethnicity. 17 Free school meal entitlement was used as a proxy measure of deprivation in our survey, and it is also commonly used to investigate schoolchildren families’ income level.3 , 18 Participants were also asked how often they would purchase food/drinks from fast food takeaway outlet over a week period. Previous studies have also used this type of question to define frequency of fast food consumption.3 , 4 Participants were asked to indicate what portion size of chips they would normally purchase. Participants were asked to rank their three most popular types of beverages they would normally purchase. Participants were also asked to report their average level of physical activity during weekends and weekdays on the same questionnaire. Response options include from <2 h, 2–5 h and 5 h or more per day.
An effective pilot study of the newest survey try done with a small take to regarding pupils (n=30) aged twelve–13 many years. Pointers about airplane pilot investigation included rewording the questions to be top know in order to limitation the amount of discover-finished inquiries. The fresh questionnaire try distributed in both colleges anywhere between and you may was done by 193 people. The fresh new questionnaire was designed to feel worry about-given. Taught lookup assistants was indeed available to let children exactly who expected let which have information or understanding the questions.
Anthropometric measurements have been gathered of the trained browse personnel. Top is actually counted for the nearest millimetre playing with SECA Leicester smartphone peak measure (stadiometer). All the participants were trained to remove their footwear in advance of the peak try removed and also to align their lead from the Frankfurt jet.19 Pounds are measured towards the nearest 0.step one kilogram using calibrated Lbs Watchers Effortless Read Precision digital balances (model: 8961U). Participants was educated to eradicate the footwear and you may outerwear, that’s, outside jacket, and stay inside their uniform before they were weighed. Self-claimed measurements was basically excluded throughout the data research lay because they were considered unreliable. Bmi (BMI) was taken from mentioned height and lbs of youngsters and http://www.datingranking.net/de/beliebte-dating-sites you can determined with the following formulae: Body mass index kilogram/yards dos = pounds (kg)/height2 (metres). Bmi percentile to possess age and you may intercourse based on the validated British 1990 resource analysis charts are calculated, looking at go out from delivery and you will big date from dimension.20–23 Percentile between 85th and you will 95th percentile is recognized as heavy and you may ?95th percentile try defined as obese.twenty-four , 25 A hundred and you will twenty-you to definitely schoolchildren got finished studies to have calculation out of Bmi percentile to own years and you may sex.
Studies was analysed using SPSS V. (SPSS Inc.). Efficiency found are either displayed as means ± SD, average (range) otherwise frequencies (percentages). Mathematical significance is actually removed if p worthy of was ?0.05. Categorical details was compared by using the ? 2 test and continuous parameters utilising the Kruskal–Wallis decide to try.
The mean respondent age was 12.8 (range 11–14) years old and 56% of the respondents were male (table 1). The ethnic background of the study population was mainly Asians (48.3%) and Black/African-Carribeans (19.4%), reflecting the sampling region. Majority of the sampled population (61%) was entitled to free school meals. About one in three respondents (30.6%) was classified as being overweight or obese. Thirty-two per cent of the males were classified as being overweight or obese as compared with 29% of the females. About half of the sampled population (54%) reported that they usually purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets more than two to three times a week. About half of the schoolchildren (48%) would spend 2 per visit.